The Long Winter - Week 3


What is the difference between whole wheat flour and refined white flour?
White flour has had the inner husk or bran and the germ (the seed) parts removed so that just the starch contents of the wheat remain.
Whole wheat flour has all these ground into the flour, so has more fibre and nutrients. It also has a little more oil, (such as the wheat bran oil), and therefore has a shorter shelf life.
Whole wheat flour requires a little more moisture to be added to recipes when used instead of refined/plain/white wheat flour because the bran absorbs some moisture.


McGuffey's Fifth Eclectic Reader by William Holmes McGuffey, can be read on-line here.

tu'-bal-kan (tubhal qayin): One of the sons of Lamech (Genesis 4:22). He is a brother of Jabal and Jubal, who appear to have been the founders of several industries and articles The text (loTesh kol choresh nechosheth u-bharzel) has been the cause of endless dispute. Holzinger and Gunkel hold that laTash was a marginal gloss to charash, and that, as in Genesis 4:20 and 21, there stood before kal originally hu hayah 'abhi. This would make Tubal-cain the founder of the metal industry, and place him in a class similar to that of his brothers. The Septuagint, however, has no equivalent of qayin. This omission leads Dillmann, Wellhausen, and others to the position that "Tubal" originally stood alone, and qayin, being a later addition, was translated "smith." Many commentators identify Tubal with the Assyrian Tubal, a people living Southwest of the Black Sea; in later times they were called "Tibareni" (Ezekiel 27:13). Tubal may be the eponymous ancestor of these people, whose principal industry seems to have been the manufacture of vessels of bronze and iron.


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